Zootaxa: use of hyphen and dashesInstructions for Zootaxa authors: use of hyphen, n-dash and m-dash
Zootaxa instructions for authors have very detailed instructions regarding the use of hyphen, n- and m-dash. For your convenience these instructions are also provided below, slightly modified.
- Hyphens are used to link words such as personal names, some prefixes and compound adjectives (the last of which vary depending on the style manual in use). Some examples: the hyphen used to separate numbers that are not inclusive (grant AB2323-3434-787); in compound words (all-inclusive, well-known, blue-green [but: bluish green]).
- En-dash or en-rule (the length of an ‘n’) is used to link spans. In the context of the journal that means numerals mainly, most frequently sizes, dates and page numbers (e.g. 1977–1981; figs 5–7) and also geographic or name associations (Murray–Darling River; a Federal–State agreement). En-dashes should not be spaced: "1977–1981" is correct, "1977 – 1981" is incorrect. If you are preparing your manuscript in Word, you can type en-dash using the menu (Insert symbol), or (faster and better) by holding down the <ALT> key, typing 0150 (using numeric group of keys on the right side of the keyboard) and releasing the <ALT> Key.
- Em-dash or em-rule (the length of an ‘m’) are used far more infrequently, and are used for breaks in the text or subject, often used much as we use parentheses. In contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used alone (e.g. What could these results mean—that Niel had discovered the meaning of life?). A defining or enumerating complementary element that is added to or inserted in a sentence may be set off by m-dashes. Such an element may also, however, be set off by commas, enclosed in parentheses or—at the end of a sentence—introduced by a colon (An example: The influence of three experts—Bernhauer, Cameron and Coiffait—can clearly be seen in her early development as a staphylinid taxonomist). Em-dashes should not be spaced: "...a sentence—introduced by a colon" is correct; "...a sentence — introduced by a colon" is incorrect. If you are preparing your manuscript in Word, you can type em-dash using the menu (Insert symbol), or (faster and better) by holding down the <ALT> key, typing 0151 (using numeric group of keys on the right side of the keyboard) and releasing the <ALT> Key.
Last updated: August 26, 2009
Published Aug. 26, 2009 11:23 AM - Last modified Nov. 20, 2014 10:19 AM