X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

The Geo Laboratory at the Natural History Museum (NHM-UiO) is equipped with two diffractometers used for qualitative identification of minerals in rocks and crystal structure analysis. We can analyze powder samples and single crystals. Preparation labs are available for various sample pretreatments.

XRD Instruments

  • Siemens D5005 Powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD) in Bragg-Brentano geometry with a scintillation counter and Cu X-ray source. Installed in 1998.
  • Rigaku Dual Beam Synergy-S single-crystal X-ray diffractometer (SXRD) equipped with a HyPix-6000HE detector, micro-focused Mo and Cu X-ray sources. It can also run Gandolfi movements for phase identification of very small samples (down to ~30 μm) and very small amounts of powders (mg). Installed in 2018.

Software Packages and Databases

  • Bruker AXS DIFFRAC.EVA for phase identification based on the Crystallography Open Database (COD) and the most recent PDF-4 database from the International Center of Diffraction Data (ICDD).
  • Bruker AXS TOPAS V5 for structural characterization of powdered samples (Rietveld-based full profile methods): lattice parameters and microstructure.
  • CrysAlis Pro for single crystal and Gandolfi XRD measurements.


Prices are in NOK excl. VAT. These fees are subject to change at the discretion of the lab.

Instrument User Type Unit of pricing Price 
PXRD/Gandolfi Master Student sample free
PXRD/Gandolfi Internal - Academic sample 250
PXRD/Gandolfi External - Industrial sample 600
SXRD Master Student dataset free
SXRD Internal - Academic dataset 1000 
SXRD External - Industrial dataset 3000 
SXRD External - Industrial dataset and structure solution 7000 


Tags: powder XRD, single-crystal XRD, Gandolfi, crystallography, structure solution, mineralogy, paleontology, microanalyses
Published Feb. 12, 2019 9:15 AM - Last modified June 6, 2019 1:37 PM